See the list below for answers to all your biodiesel questions.
Biodiesel fuels are commonly known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) or Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (FAEE). Biodiesel properties are like those of diesel fuel, as opposed to gasoline or gaseous fuels, and thus are capable of being used in compression ignition engines.
The current approved engine models are as follows:
On-Highway: ISX, ISM, ISL, ISV5.0 and ISB engines built after January 2007. ISX CM570 built after January 2002.
Off-Highway: QSX, QSM, QSL, QSC, QSB6.7, QSB4.5 and QSB3.3 engines built after January 2007, Cummins MerCruiser™ Diesel Marine engines produced after 01 January 2007: B-Series, QSB, C-Series, QSC, and QSL, QSM11, QSM G-Drive, and QSF3.8
High Horsepower Off-Highway built after January 1, 2008, except Tier 4: QSK78, QSK60, QSK50, K2000E, K50, QSK45, QSK38, K1500E, K38, QST30, QSK23, QSK19 and K19. Also, Marine QSK60, QSK50, K50 QSK45, QSK38, K38 QSK19, K19.
Cummins has approved B20 for the high horsepower engines listed above with the following fuel systems: Pressure Timed, High-Pressure Injection, Modular Common Rail Fuel Injection System and BOSCH Pump-Line-Nozzle.
Paraffinic fuels are an alternative to diesel with low Sulphur and aromatics. They are derived from a variety of sources. The most common sources include natural gas, coal, plant oils, and animal fats. Paraffinic fuel includes (1) HVO – Hydrotreated vegetable oil, (2) GTL – Gas (natural gas) to liquid, (3) STL – Solid (Coal) to liquid, (4) PTL – Power to liquid.
Fuels derived from plant oils and fats are often referred to as renewable diesel (RD) or hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO). HVO is in Paraffinic fuel. HVO is produced from biomass feedstock but it is not Biodiesel. Renewable diesels are not the same as biodiesel or fatty acid methyl ester.
Unique characteristics of paraffin-based fuel include reduced density and increased cetane number. Paraffinic fuels have a density lower than petroleum diesels and can result in lower energy content by volume, resulting in reduced fuel economy and possible reduction in engine power
On Highway: ISB, ISL, ISF
Off Highway: QSB, QSC, QSL, QSF
Biodiesel must conform to the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) specifications. B100 must conform to ASTM D6751 prior to blending, and the finished B20 blend must conform to ASTM D7467.
ASTM D6751 specification for B100 has been revised to now include a cold soak test. The B100 fuel is cold soaked and filtered to catch impurities or incomplete reactions resulting from the production process. The stability requirement is still in effect and is a critical requirement when B100 is blended with Petro Diesel to produce a B20 blend.
ASTM D7467 is a new specification which applies to biodiesel blends of B6 – B20 and includes an oxidation stability requirement. This specification replaces Cummins’ previous Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA) B20 specification requirement.
In Europe, specifications for biodiesel are issued under EN 14214. EN 14214 is published by CEN, the European Committee for Standardization or Comate Europeen de Normalization. http://www.cen.eu/cenorm/index.htm.
Equivalent biodiesel specifications are required internationally.
Customers are required to purchase the biodiesel blend from a BQ9000 Certified Marketer. The B100 fuel used in the blend must be sourced from a BQ9000 Accredited Producer. BQ9000 Certified Marketers and Accredited Producers can be found at www.bq-9000.org.
Cummins has recently updated the Fuels Requirements – Service Bulletin 3379001. It can be obtained on Cummins QuickServe website at quickserve.cummins.com. Customers can also contact their local distributor and certified dealers for the bulletin.
Cummins requires the use of a StrataPore™ fuel filter media, and strongly recommends using Cummins Filtration™ filters equipped with StrataPore™ media. If StrataPore media is not used, then an equivalent filter that meets specific performance standards must be used. For more information, please visit www.cumminsfiltration.com.
Cummins also requires high horsepower marine applications to use a centrifuge filtration system to safeguard against water contamination as water intrusion is common in vessel fuel storage tanks. Cummins recommends all commercial marine applications to use centrifuge filtration systems as well. For more information please review the Fuel Requirements - Service Bulletin, number 3379001.
Due to the solvent nature of B20, and the potential for ‘cleaning’ of the vehicle fuel tank and lines, new fuel filters must be installed when switching to B20 on used engines. Fuel filters will need to be replaced at half the standard interval for the next two fuel filter changes. After this initial period, you may revert to the intervals specified in your O & M manual.
For EPA 2007 on-highway midrange engines only, oil sampling will be necessary for the first 6 months of operation with B20 to monitor fuel dilution of the lubricating oil.
For high horsepower engines equipped with the Eliminator™ oil filter option, oil sampling will be needed to determine the appropriate oil change interval. Oil samples should be taken every 250 hours of operation and analyzed according to the Cummins Engine Oil Recommendations Bulletin 3810340 which can be found on quickserve.cummins.com or through local distributors and certified dealers. This process should be repeated for at least three oil change intervals to ensure consistent oil behavior.
Use biodiesel fuel within six months of its manufacture date. Biodiesel has lower oxidation stability compared to Petro Diesel. Avoid storing equipment with biodiesel blends in the fuel system for more than three months
Natural rubber, butyl rubber and some types of nitrile rubber (depending on chemical composition, construction and application) may be particularly susceptible to degradation. Also, copper, bronze, brass, tin, lead and zinc can cause deposit formations. The use of these materials and coatings must be avoided for fuel tanks and fuel lines. Fuel fittings and connectors are acceptable due to the small surface area in contact with the fuel.
Note: Contact your vehicle manufacturer to determine if any of the OEM supplied components are at risk with biodiesel in order to prevent engine or vehicle damage.
The main reason not to include engines earlier than 2002 is due to materials compatibility concerns. Some fuel systems in pre-2002 engines contain components that are not compatible with a B20 biodiesel blend. EPA 2002 and later engines contain fuel system components that are compatible.
Some seals and gaskets had to be changed on the engines to allow compatibility with biodiesel
Cummins engine warranty covers failures that are a result of defects in material or factory workmanship. Engine damage, service issues, and/or performance issues determined by Cummins to be caused by the use of biodiesel fuel not meeting the specifications outlined in the Fuels Service Bulletin (3379001) are not considered to be defects in material or workmanship and are not covered under Cummins engine warranty.
This is no different from Cummins position with regular diesel fuel. Cummins does not cover the damage caused by non-Cummins products that are of insufficient quality. It is important to ensure when using diesel fuel or a B20 biodiesel blend with a Cummins engine that the fuel meets industry acceptable quality standards.
It should be emphasized that Cummins, in common with all other engine manufacturers, only certifies engines to meet the prescribed EPA (or other local regulatory agency) registered fuels. It is the customer’s responsibility to use the correct fuel prescribed by these regulations and as recommended by the engine manufacturer.
The EPA has regulated the United States’ highway diesel fuel quality since 1993 to ensure it is compatible with engine emissions standards and air quality goals. It is the responsibility of the customer to obtain the proper local, regional, or national exemptions required for the use of biodiesel in any emissions-regulated Cummins engine.
Cummins fully supports the use of environmentally beneficial alternative fuels. All of our automotive and industrial engines are compatible with B5 biodiesel to help encourage the greater use of renewable, domestically grown fuel.
Only engines listed in this document are approved for B20 use. Cummins is continuing the evaluation of biodiesel concentrations higher than 5%. All future products will be compatible with biodiesel B20. We are aware of the growing interest in B20 fuel blends and fully support this interest in renewable fuels.
Some OEMs using Cummins engines not listed in this bulletin may have specific releases regarding the use of biodiesel that apply only to their application. All customers wanting to use biodiesel should also contact their OEM to ensure all supplied components are compatible, including fuel tanks and lines.
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